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Traditional Techniques

There are two main techniques that I employ to create stained glass art; Traditional leaded stained glass and Tiffany Lamp-style copper foiled stained glass. These can be used in isolation or combined together to produce a more complex piece and both techniques are explained here. Both are very manual processes using traditional glass that varies in colour across sheets and from batch to batch. This means each finished piece is totally unique, even if similar in style to another.

Each finished piece is made up of a combination of stained glass (often handmade hence it may contain flaws that naturally occur in the manufacturing process), lead which must be handled with care (always wash hands after handling), specialist glass paint (if relevant to the design), tallow candle wax and / or chemical flux, solder, and cement. 

Traditional Leaded Technique

Stained glass art can be beautiful and functional, for example numerals for your home. This traditional leaded glass process overview shows one of these numerals being made, from start to finish. The end result has much in common with traditional church windows, using materials and techniques that have not changed for hundreds of years.

67 mockup


A design is sketched up. Often these have to be finessed in order to allow space for the lead work. Approval may be possible at this stage.

It is possible to mock up a close approximation of the potential finished design digitally using images of the actual proposed glass. This gives an idea of how it would look when made and allows for discussion on colours - how will it suit the area you have chosen to display it? Please note that your monitor or phone may render colours differently so this is to give a general idea.

starting to fit
67 making up
Final 67


Once the design is approved I will work up a quotation and estimate timescale. If all is approved to proceed, 25% of the final cost is paid to help with outlay and the design is turned into a formal technical drawing including cut lines for glass and alignments for lead. Formal approval is required to proceed to the next step.

Glass cutting. This has to be precise to within 1 mm to ensure the design remains accurate and structurally sound.


If painting were part of the design, it would occur here. To achieve more than one layer of paint and a more complex image, the paint has to be applied and fired in a kiln over night, several times. This example does not involve painting.


Lead is shaped and cut. Glass and lead are fitted together and pinned in position.


Soldering fixes the pieces together permanently.


Cementing. This embeds the glass in place within the lead, adds strength and helps to weatherproof the piece. My traditional leaded stained glass panels are made to hang inside windows but could be used outdoors if you wished.


Polishing is the final part of the process and removes any excess cement, turning the lead from grey to the pewter/black colour that is so familiar with stained glass.

Tiffany Lamp-Style Copper Foiling

Copper foiling can also incorporate the element of painting (if required) and the following process example reflects this.


A design is sketched up. The design may be approved at this stage or a more complex mock up may be made.

Once the design is approved I will work up a quotation and estimate timescale. If all is approved to proceed, 25% of the final cost is paid to help with initial outlay. 


A simple technical drawing is made for glass position and glass cutting commences. Glass is ground for a precise fit.

glass cut


If painting is required special glass paint is applied, often in several layers to achieve the desired effect.

Each layer must be fired overnight at high temperatures in a kiln which makes the design permanent.



When all painting and firing is complete each piece of glass is wrapped in copper foil strips.


Glass is arranged and soldered on both sides. The solder adheres to the foil with the help of flux and forms a raised bead which is typically seen in Tiffany lamps.



Glass is cleaned to remove excess flux.


The solder is patinated with a chemical to turn it much darker to match any leading used within the piece. Patina helps us see the glass colours better.

The project is now cleaned again.



This example is having a leaded edge so the rest of the process is as the leaded  technique defined above. The lead 'came' is stretched and shaped to fit the panel, pinned in place and soldered.



The lead is then cemented which ensures the glass is firmly secured.


Once dry, the excess cement is cleaned off and the final piece is polished.

Combining techniques give us a strong yet detailed panel.

I hope you found this overview useful.

Please use the contact form to discuss possible commissions or to find out more.

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